Origins of modern design: Germany and Europe
Industrial design is a largely 20th-century phenomenon. The first industrial designer is often considered to be German architect Peter Behrens, who was heavily influenced by the 19th-century English designer and poet William Morris and by the Arts and Crafts movement, with which Morris was closely associated. Beginning in 1907, Behrens was the artistic adviser for AEG (the Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft, or Universal Electric Company), for which he designed not only industrial buildings but also small electrical appliances, from teakettles to fans. In addition, he determined the company’s corporate identity, packaging, and advertising. Behrens’s approach was an extension of what architects such as Frank Lloyd Wright and Karl Friedrich Schinkel long practiced: total control of a designed environment at all levels. Behrens, however, created designs for a corporate client, intent on selling a service and related goods to the public, rather than for a middle-class residential client or a royal patron, as in the cases of Wright and Schinkel, respectively.
Behrens was a leading member of the Deutscher Werkbund (founded in 1907), a society of artists, architects, and craftsmen akin to English arts-and-crafts societies. The Deutscher Werkbund catalyzed communication among German design professionals and sponsored major exhibitions, such as those in Cologne (1914) and Stuttgart (1927); the latter was the Weissenhofsiedlung, a renowned exhibition of model homes designed by Europe’s leading modern architects and the epitome of the International Style of minimalist architecture.
Behrens himself influenced many architect-designers of the next generation, including Walter Gropius, founder of Germany’s famed Bauhaus school of design, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, who served as a later director of the school. Founded in 1919 in Weimar, Ger., the Bauhaus aimed to elevate and coordinate the design and production of crafts and industrial goods for a new postimperial age. Both Gropius and Mies designed buildings as well as smaller-scale objects. For instance, Gropius was the architect of the new Bauhaus building when the school moved to Dessau in 1925, but he also designed interiors of Adler automobiles (1930–33). The furnishings designed at the Bauhaus were characterized by the extensive use of bent metal, something that was developed with the assistance of the Junkers Aircraft Company in Dessau, a firm known for its early development of the all-metal airplane in 1918, at the end of World War I. Mies—who directed the Bauhaus from 1930 to 1933, when the Nazi Party came to national power and closed it—designed some renowned examples of steel-framed furniture, such as the MR chair (1927), the Barcelona chair (1929), and the Brno chair (1930). During the worldwide Great Depression of the 1930s, when he had few architectural commissions, Mies earned a living from the royalties of those furniture sales. The Bauhaus produced other icons of modern design, notably the sleek glassware and streamlined table lamps of Wilhelm Wagenfeld.
Beyond those designers specifically associated with the Bauhaus, other German architects of the time created high-profile designs; for instance, Fritz August Breuhaus de Groot created the interiors of the steamship Bremen (1929) and the airship Hindenburg (1931–35), and in the 1930s Gropius protégé Carl August Bembé designed motorboats for Maybach, a company that built internal-combustion engines for airplanes and boats and automobiles for the German car manufacturers Opel and Adler.
Early developments in industrial design were not, however, taking place solely in Germany. In the first decades of the 20th century, architects and designers in other countries were also creating distinctively designed consumer products. These include such items as the undulating Savoy vase (1936) by the Finnish architect Alvar Aalto, the avant-garde geometric porcelain teapots and cups (1923) by Russian Suprematist painter Kazimir Malevich, the classic double-lever corkscrew (1930) by Italian designer Dominick Rosati, and the ubiquitous, highly flexible Anglepoise desk lamp (1932) by the British automotive engineer George Carwardine.